Cheyenne, Wyoming

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Cheyenne, Wyoming

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Cheyenne, Wyoming
State capital and city
City of Cheyenne
Left to right from top: Downtown Cheyenne, Cheyenne Depot MuseumUnion Pacific Big Boy 4004 and the Wyoming State Capitol
FlagSeal
Nickname(s): “Magic City of the Plains” (historic)
Location in Laramie County in Wyoming
CheyenneCheyenneLocation within the state of WyomingShow map of WyomingShow map of the United StatesShow map of North AmericaShow all
Coordinates: 41°8′24″N 104°49′13″WCoordinates41°8′24″N 104°49′13″W
CountryUnited States
StateWyoming
CountyLaramie
Founded1867
Named forCheyenne people
Government
 • MayorPatrick Collins[1]
Area[2]
 • City32.37 sq mi (83.84 km2)
 • Land32.26 sq mi (83.55 km2)
 • Water0.11 sq mi (0.29 km2)  0.45%
Elevation6,062 ft (1,848 m)
Population (2020)[3]
 • City65,132
 • Density1,991.23/sq mi (768.82/km2)
Time zoneUTC−7 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (Mountain)
ZIP Code82001–82003, 82006–82010
Area code(s)307
FIPS code56-13900[4]
GNIS feature ID1609077[5]
Highways  
 
Websitewww.cheyennecity.org

Cheyenne (/ʃaɪˈæn/ shy-AN or /ʃaɪˈɛn/ shy-EN) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming, with 65,132 residents.[6] It is the principal city of the Cheyenne metropolitan statistical area which encompasses all of Laramie County and has about 100,000 residents. Local residents named the town for the Cheyenne Native American people in 1867 when it was founded in the Dakota Territory.[7]

Cheyenne is the northern terminus of the extensive Southern Rocky Mountain Front, which extends southward to AlbuquerqueNew Mexico, and includes the fast-growing Front Range Urban Corridor.[3][8] Cheyenne is situated on Crow Creek and Dry Creek.

Contents

History[edit]

See also: Timeline of Cheyenne, Wyoming

 Former flag of Cheyenne, used from 1967 to 1985

At a celebration on July 4, 1867, Grenville M. Dodge of the Union Pacific Railroad announced the selection of a townsite for its mountain region[failed verification] headquarters adjacent to the bridge the railroad planned to build across Crow Creek in the Territory of Dakota.[9] At the same celebration, Major General Christopher C. Augur announced the selection of a site three miles (5 km) west of Crow Creek Crossing for a U.S. Army fort to protect the railroad.[10]

The Union Pacific Railroad platted its Crow Creek Crossing townsite on July 5, 1867.[11] Residents named the town Cheyenne for the Cheyenne Native American people.[7] On August 8, 1867, the Town of Cheyenne, Dakota Territory was incorporated, and on August 10, 1867, H. M. Hook was elected as Cheyenne’s first mayor.[7] The tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad reached Cheyenne on November 13, 1867, and the first train arrived the following day.[11] Cheyenne grew so quickly it gained the nickname of “Magic City of the Plains”.[9]

On September 8, 1867, the United States Army established Fort D.A. Russell in honor of Brigadier General David Allen Russell.[10] Initially a cavalry encampment, construction of the fort began the following month.[9] The fort was renamed Fort Francis E. Warren in 1930 in honor of the first Governor of the State of WyomingFrancis E. Warren.[12] The fort was transferred to the new United States Air Force and was renamed Francis E. Warren Air Force Base in October 1949.[12]

On July 25, 1868, the United States organized the Territory of Wyoming.[13] Territorial Governor John Allen Campbell arrived in Cheyenne on May 7, 1869, and named Cheyenne the temporary territorial capital.[14] Cheyenne has remained the only capital of Wyoming. On December 10, 1869, the first session of the Wyoming Territorial Legislature met in Cheyenne.[14] That day, the legislature passed and Territorial Governor Campbell signed an act to re-incorporate the Town of Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, and an act granting white women the right to vote, the first U.S. state or territory to grant suffrage to women.[14]

On July 10, 1890, the Territory of Wyoming was admitted to the Union as the State of Wyoming.[15] The Wyoming State Capitol was constructed between 1886 and 1890, with further improvements being completed in 1917.

The Cheyenne Regional Airport was opened in 1920, initially serving as a stop for airmail. It soon developed into a civil-military airport, serving DC-3s and various military craft. During World War II, hundreds of B-17sB-24s, and PBYs were outfitted and upgraded at the airfield. Today, it serves a number of military functions, and as a high-altitude testbed for civilian craft.[16]

Geography[edit]

Geography[edit]

Late-June 2003 view from the International Space Station

Lying near the southeast corner of the state, Cheyenne is one of the least centrally located state capitals in the nation (together with cities such as Carson City, NevadaJuneau, AlaskaTallahassee, Florida; and Topeka, Kansas).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.63 square miles (63.79 km2), of which 24.52 square miles (63.51 km2) is land and 0.11 square miles (0.28 km2) is water.[17]

Climate[edit]

Cheyenne, like much of Wyoming, has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) and is part of USDA Hardiness zone 5b, with the suburbs falling in zone 5a.[18] Winters are cold and moderately long, but relatively dry with highs often above freezing, having a normal mean temperature of 27.7 °F (−2.4 °C), highs that fail to breach freezing for 35 days per year, and lows that dip to the 0 °F (−18 °C) mark on 9.2 mornings.[19] However, the cold is often interrupted, with chinook winds blowing downslope from the Rockies that can bring warm conditions, bringing the high above 50 °F (10 °C) on twenty days from December to February.[19]

While December is the coldest month, snowfall is greatest in March and April, seasonally averaging 60 inches (1,500 mm), historically ranging from 13.1 inches (330 mm) between July 1965 and June 1966 up to 121.5 inches (3,090 mm) between July 1979 and June 1980, yet thick snow cover rarely stays.[19] Summers are warm, with a high diurnal temperature range; July averages 69.4 °F (20.8 °C), and highs reach 90 °F (32 °C) on average for twelve afternoons annually. Spring and autumn are quick transitions, with the average window for freezing temperatures being September 29 thru May 14, allowing a growing season of 106 days.[19] Official record temperatures range from −38 °F (−39 °C) on January 9, 1875, up to 100 °F (38 °C) on June 23, 1954, the last of four occurrences; the record cold daily maximum is −21 °F (−29 °C) on January 11, 1963, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 68 °F (20 °C) on July 31, 1960.[19] The annual precipitation of 15.9 inches (400 mm) tends to be concentrated from May to August and is low during fall and winter; it has historically ranged from 5.04 inches (128.0 mm) in 1876 to 23.69 inches (602 mm) in 1942.[19]

The city averages below 60% daily relative humidity in each month and receives an average 2,980 hours (~67% of the possible total) of sunshine annually. On July 16, 1979, an F3 tornado struck Cheyenne, causing one death and 40 injuries.[20] It was the most destructive tornado in Wyoming history.[21]

hideClimate data for Cheyenne Regional Airport, Wyoming (1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1872−present[b])
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)70
(21)
71
(22)
77
(25)
84
(29)
91
(33)
100
(38)
100
(38)
98
(37)
96
(36)
85
(29)
75
(24)
70
(21)
100
(38)
Mean maximum °F (°C)58
(14)
60
(16)
69
(21)
75
(24)
83
(28)
91
(33)
94
(34)
93
(34)
88
(31)
78
(26)
67
(19)
59
(15)
95
(35)
Average high °F (°C)40.0
(4.4)
40.6
(4.8)
49.1
(9.5)
54.8
(12.7)
64.4
(18.0)
76.7
(24.8)
84.1
(28.9)
82.0
(27.8)
73.3
(22.9)
59.1
(15.1)
47.5
(8.6)
39.3
(4.1)
59.2
(15.1)
Daily mean °F (°C)29.2
(−1.6)
29.5
(−1.4)
37.1
(2.8)
42.8
(6.0)
52.3
(11.3)
63.1
(17.3)
70.1
(21.2)
68.1
(20.1)
59.6
(15.3)
46.5
(8.1)
36.1
(2.3)
28.7
(−1.8)
46.9
(8.3)
Average low °F (°C)18.4
(−7.6)
18.4
(−7.6)
25.1
(−3.8)
30.8
(−0.7)
40.2
(4.6)
49.4
(9.7)
56.1
(13.4)
54.3
(12.4)
45.8
(7.7)
33.9
(1.1)
24.7
(−4.1)
18.1
(−7.7)
34.6
(1.4)
Mean minimum °F (°C)−6
(−21)
−4
(−20)
7
(−14)
16
(−9)
27
(−3)
38
(3)
47
(8)
45
(7)
32
(0)
16
(−9)
3
(−16)
−5
(−21)
−13
(−25)
Record low °F (°C)−38
(−39)
−34
(−37)
−21
(−29)
−8
(−22)
8
(−13)
25
(−4)
33
(1)
25
(−4)
8
(−13)
−5
(−21)
−21
(−29)
−28
(−33)
−38
(−39)
Average precipitation inches (mm)0.35
(8.9)
0.52
(13)
0.96
(24)
1.79
(45)
2.44
(62)
2.16
(55)
2.11
(54)
1.52
(39)
1.47
(37)
1.00
(25)
0.61
(15)
0.48
(12)
15.41
(391)
Average snowfall inches (cm)6.3
(16)
9.0
(23)
9.7
(25)
11.3
(29)
3.4
(8.6)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.0
(2.5)
5.9
(15)
7.5
(19)
8.8
(22)
62.9
(160)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)5.16.97.910.612.910.710.510.37.37.16.26.0101.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)5.97.36.86.81.90.10.00.00.53.25.86.745.0
Average relative humidity (%)52.554.656.154.355.853.551.351.451.550.053.654.053.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours190.7202.6253.1271.9291.9303.2317.5297.4262.3237.0178.8175.42,981.8
Percent possible sunshine64686868656769707069606167
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[19][23][24]
hideClimate data for Cheyenne
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Mean daily daylight hours10.011.012.013.015.015.015.014.012.011.010.09.012.3
Average Ultraviolet index235791010974215.8
Source: Weather Atlas[25]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
18701,450
18803,456138.3%
189011,690238.3%
190014,08720.5%
191011,320−19.6%
192013,82922.2%
193017,36125.5%
194022,47429.5%
195031,93542.1%
196043,50536.2%
197041,254−5.2%
198047,28314.6%
199050,0085.8%
200053,0116.0%
201059,46612.2%
202065,1329.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[26]
1870–2000 census[27]
2018 estimate[28]

In 2020, Cheyenne had a total estimated population of 64,742.[29] As of the census of 2010,[3] there were 59,467 people, 25,558 households, and 15,270 families living in the city. The population density was 2,425.2 inhabitants per square mile (936.4/km2). There were 27,284 housing units at an average density of 1,112.7 per square mile (429.6/km2). As of the census of 2000,[4] there were 53,011 people, 22,324 households, 14,175 families living in the city, and 81,607 people living in the metropolitan statistical area making it the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Wyoming. The population density was 2,511.4 inhabitants per square mile (969.6/km2). There were 23,782 housing units at an average density of 1,126.7 per square mile (435.0/km2).

At the 2019 American Community Survey, the city had an owner-occupied housing rate of 65.9% with a median value at $214,300. There were 27,344 households from 2015 to 2019, and an average of 2.20 persons per household.[30] Residents of Cheyenne had a median household income of $64,598 and per capita of $35,637. An estimated 10.4% lived at or below the poverty line.

In 2010, there were 25,558 households, of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 40.3% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.92. In 2000, there were 22,324 households, out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.93.

The median age in the city was 36.5 years at the 2010 census. Twenty-four percent of residents were under the age of 18; 9.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.9% were from 25 to 44; 26.2% were from 45 to 64; and 13.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.7% female. In 2000, 24.9% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $38,856, and the median income for a family was $46,771. Males had a median income of $32,286 versus $24,529 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,809. About 6.3% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over.

Ethnicity[edit]

The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the racial and ethnic makeup of the city was 89.5% non-Hispanic white, 2.0% Black or African American, 0.8% American Indian or Alaska Native, 1.5% Asian, 0.3% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 3.9% two or more races, and 14.7% Hispanic or Latin American of any race, in 2019.[31]

In 2010, the racial makeup of the city was 87.44% White, 2.88% African American, 0.96% Native American, 1.24% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 4.0% from other races, and 3.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.45% of the population. At the 2005–2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, the city’s population was 87.2% White (79.3% non-Hispanic White alone), 12.7% Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 4.5% Black or African American, 2.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.1% Asian and 6.4% from some other race.[32]

In 2000, the racial makeup of the city was 88.1% White, 2.8% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.4% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. 12.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Government[edit]

Wyoming State Capitol, the home of the state’s legislature

Cheyenne’s government consists of a mayor and a city council, elected on a non-partisan basis. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The city council has nine members each of whom are elected from one of three wards. Each ward elects three members. The mayor’s office is responsible for managing the various city departments which consist of Police, Fire Rescue, Planning and Development, Engineering, Public Works, Treasury, Attorney’s Office, Human Resources, and Municipal Court.[33] The Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities is owned by the city but is semi-autonomous.[34]

Education[edit]

Public education in the city of Cheyenne is provided by Laramie County School District #1. The district is served by four high schools, Central High on the northwest side, East High on the east side, South High on the south side, and Triumph High, also on the south side.

Cheyenne is home to the Laramie County Community College (LCCC), one of seven constituent campuses managed by the Wyoming Community College Commission.

Cheyenne has a public library, a branch of the Laramie County Library System.[35]

Parks and recreation[edit]

Lions Park

The Cheyenne Community Recreation and Events Department operates an Ice and Events center, swimming pool, spray park, skateboard park, two golf courses, Cheyenne Botanic Gardens (including the Paul Smith Children’s Village at the Gardens), paddle boat rentals in Lions Park (summers only), cemeteries, forestry operations, community house, Youth Activity Center and a miniature golf park. The Cheyenne Parks and Recreation Department also operates a 37 miles (60 kilometers)) Greater Cheyenne Greenway system. The greenway connects parks and neighborhoods of greater Cheyenne. It includes many bridges and underpasses where travelers can avoid high traffic roads and travel above waterways and drainages. It is known that the famous bicycler, Cheyenne Otero, spent many weekends there training for marathons. sp In 1996, as a result of the greenway, Cheyenne was named a “Trail Town USA” by the National Park service and the American Hiking Society.[36]

Sports venues in Cheyenne include the Cheyenne Ice and Events CenterPioneer Park,[37] Powers Field,[38] Bison Stadium[39][40] and Okie-Blanchard Stadium.[41]

Professional sports[edit]

The Cheyenne Warriors were founded as an American Professional Football League team in 2012. After playing a season in the APFL, they announced a move to the Indoor Football League. Shortly after the owner of the team died in December 2012, the Warriors announced that they were forming the new Developmental Football League. After playing several games in this new league, the team folded in May 2013.

Landmarks[edit]

Cheyenne’s VFW post (1980) photographed by John Margolies, catalogues of roadside attractions

National Register of Historic Places[edit]

Over fifty different locations in Cheyenne are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including:

Several districts in the city are also listed, including:

Media[edit]

Main article: Media in Cheyenne, Wyoming

Arts and culture[edit]

Bulldogging at Cheyenne Frontier Days, 1910

Cheyenne Frontier Days, which is held over ten days centered around the last full week in July, is the largest outdoor rodeo in the US. The events include professional bull riding, calf roping, barrel racing, steer wrestling, team roping, bronc riding, steer roping, bareback riding, and many others. During this week there are many parades and other events. Additionally there is a carnival with numerous rides, games, and shops.[43]

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Road network

Plaque depicting the city’s street grid and historic districts

  •  I-25 – North–South Interstate running from New Mexico to Wyoming intersects I-80 southwest of Cheyenne.
  •  I-80 – East-West Interstate running from California to New Jersey. Intersects I-25 southwest of Cheyenne.
  •  I-180 – Bypass Interstate that runs concurrent with US 85 from I-80 to US 30.
  •  US 30 (Lincoln Highway) – East–west route through Cheyenne
  •  US 85 (South Greeley Highway, Central Avenue (Southbound), Warren Avenue (Northbound)) – North–South route through Cheyenne
  •  US 87 – North–South through Cheyenne that runs concurrent with I-25 through Cheyenne
  •  WYO 210 (Happy Jack Road) – East–west route from I-25/US 87 (Exit 10) west out of Cheyenne towards Laramie
  •  WYO 211 (Horsecreek Road) – Runs northwest out of Cheyenne to Horse Creek.
  •  WYO 212 (College Drive, Four Mile Road) – North–South route that forms a beltway around Cheyenne. From I-25 (Exit 7) to WYO 219
  •  WYO 219 (Yellowstone Road) – North–South route from US 85 in Cheyenne near the Cheyenne Airport north out of the city
  •  WYO 221 (Fox Farm Road) – East–west route from US 85 east to WYO 212 in Cheyenne
  •  WYO 222 (Fort Access Road) – North–South route from WYO 225 just southeast of Cheyenne and travels north to F.E. Warren Air Force Base and continues on its north route east of the city to WYO 221
  •  WYO 225 (Otto Road) – East–west route from I-80/US 30 southwest of Cheyenne west

Public transit[edit]

Cheyenne provides local hourly bus service from 6:00 a.m. – 7:00 p.m. Monday to Friday and 10:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. on Saturday. There is no Sunday service.[44]

Airports[edit]

Cheyenne Regional Airport features daily, nonstop airline service on United Express to Denver International Airport.

Railroads[edit]

The Union Pacific and BNSF railroads intersect in Cheyenne. The city is home to a BNSF railyard, as well as the Union Pacific’s roundhouse that hosts their steam program. UP’s operational steam locomotives 844 and 4014 reside in the steam shop, along with Challenger #3985 and DDA40X #6936.[45]

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Cheyenne’s sister cities are:[81]

Suburbs[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. ^ Official records for Cheyenne kept at the City Office from January 1871 to August 1935 and at Cheyenne Regional since September 1935.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mayor’s Office, Cheyenne.
  2. ^ “2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  3. Jump up to:a b c “American FactFinder”United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  4. Jump up to:a b “American FactFinder”United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ “US Board on Geographic Names”United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^ “Find a County”. National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  7. Jump up to:a b c “History of Cheyenne”. City of Cheyenne, Wyoming. 2020. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  8. ^ “Front Range – America 2050”America2050.orgArchived from the original on July 26, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  9. Jump up to:a b c Becky Orr (June 30, 2017). “How Cheyenne got started” (PDF). Wyoming Tribune Eagle. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  10. Jump up to:a b Jane R. Kendall (1946). “History of Fort Francis E. Warren”. Annals of Wyoming, Volume 18. Retrieved October 29, 2020.

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